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The following Otsego County/Towns portions of French's Gazetteer
was made available to you through the efforts of Shirley Farone of Ashland, Ohio.
April 26, 1998


OTSEGO COUNTY
from the
GAZETTEER OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
by J. H. French
Published by R. Pearsall Smith
Syracuse, N. Y.
1860

OTSEGO COUNTY - COUNTY PORTION:

Bracketed material in most cases represents that which appeared in the form of footnotes.

This county was erected from Montgomery, Feb. 16, 1791, and embraced the two original towns of Otsego and Cherry Valley. A part of Schoharie was taken off in 1795, and a part of Delaware in 1797. It lies upon the highlands at the head of Susquehanna River, S. E. of the center of the State. It is centrally distant 66 miles from Albany, and contains 1,038 sq. mi. Its surface is a hilly upland, divided into several ridges separated by deep, broad valleys. The declivities are generally gradual; and the highest summits are 400 to 700 ft. above the valleys and 1,700 to 2,000 ft. above tide. The ridges have a general N. E. and S. W. direction. A high and rocky upland extends into the S. E. corner from Delaware, terminating upon Schenevas Creek in an abrupt and wall-like declivity 300 to 500 ft. high. The other ridges of the co. have a nearly uniform elevation, and generally terminate in steep declivities upon the valleys of the streams. The principal streams are Unadilla River, forming the W. boundary, Wharton and Butternut Creeks, Otego Creek, Susquehanna River, Cherry Valley and Schenevas Creeks. Charlotte River forms a small portion of the S. boundary. Besides these, there are a large number of smaller creeks and brooks, tributaries to the above. A few small streams rise in the N. E. corner and flow into the Mohawk. Otsego Lake, in the N. E. part, is a fine sheet of water 8 mi. long and about 1 mi. broad. It is 1,193 feet above tide, and is surrounded by hills 400 to 500 ft. high. Its outlet forms the principal head branch of the Susquehanna. Schuyler Lake, N. W. of Otsego, is a similar sheet of water, 3-1/2 mi. long. The other bodies of water in the co. are small ponds. The rocks in the N. E. corner consist of the limestones of the Helderbergh division. The hills in the S. part are composed of the shales of the Hamilton group and the shales and sandstones of the Portage and Chemung groups. The summits in the extreme S. part and S. E. corner are crowned by the red sandstone and shales of the Catskill group. Almost all the valuable quarries of the co. are found in the limestone region of the N. E. The soil in the N. E. is a good quality of gravelly and calcareous loam; but farther south it is a clay and shaly loam upon the hills, and a gravelly loam and alluvium in the valleys. The uplands are best adapted to grazing; and the river intervales are well adapted to the cultivation of grain. The people are principally engaged in stock raising and dairying. More than three-sevenths of all the hops produced in the State are grown in this co. The manufacturing interests are limited, though the available water-power is very great.

The county seat is located at Cooperstown, in the town of Otsego, at the foot of Otsego Lake. {Thomas Farrington, of Tioga, Alvin Bronson, of Oswego, and Archibald Campbell, of Dutchess, were the commissioners appointed to locate the co. seat.} The courthouse is a brick edifice in the W. part of the village. {The first county officers were Wm. Cooper, First Judge; Jacob Morris, County Clerk; Richard B. Smith, Sheriff; and James Caubon, Surrogate.} The jail, near by, is built of stone, but has few of the modern improvements or conveniences. The average number of inmates is 8, supported at a weekly cost of $3.00 each. The clerk's office is a fireproof brick building, contiguous to the courthouse. The co. poorhouse is situated upon a farm of 153 acres in Middlefield, 4 mi. S. of Cooperstown. Its average number of inmates is 90. The children attend the district school. The farm yields a revenue of $1,400. The general arrangement and management of this institution are far better than the average. The only work of internal improvement in the co. is the Albany and Susquehanna River and Schenevas Creek, through Unadilla, Otego, Oneonta, Milford, Maryland, and Worcester.

Five weekly newspapers are published in the co.

The Otsego Hearld and Western Advertiser, the first paper published in the co. and the second in the State W. of Albany, was commenced at Cooperstown, April 3, 1795, by Elihu Phinney, a native of Conn. Mr. Phinney continued its publication until 1803, when he died. It was then published by his sons, E. and H. Phinney, until 1821, when it was discontinued.
The Impartial Observer was established at Cooperstown in 1808 by William Andrews. It soon after passed to John H. Prentiss, who changed its name to
The Cooperstown Federalist, under which title it was published until 1828, when the name was again changed to
The Freeman's Journal. In 1850 it passed into the hands of Samuel M. Shaw, by whom it is now published.
The Otsego Republican was published at Cherry Valley in 1812 by Clark & Crandal.
The Watchtower was established at Cherry Valley in 1813. In 1814 it was removed to Cooperstown where it was published by Israel W. Clark until May, 1817, when Edward B. Crandal became proprietor, and continued the publication until 1831.
The Tocsin was established at Cooperstown in June, 1829, by Dutton & Hews, and was published by them until 1831, when it took the name of
The Otsego Republican. It was issued by Dutton & Hopkins for about 1 year,; by Hopkins alone, 1 year; Hopkins & Clark, a year; by A. W. Clark, about 1 year; and by Andrew M. Barber, 4 or 5 years. In 1845 it was issued by I. K. Williams and Co. Soon after it again came into the possession of A. M. Barber, and was continued by him until his death, in Aug. 1856. In Oct. 1855, the paper was united with The Otsego Democrat, and issued as
The Republican and Democratt, under which title it is now published by James I. Hendrix.
The Otsego Democrat was commenced at Cooperstown in 1846 by James I. Hendrix, and was published by him until it was merged with the Republican in 1855.
The Otsego Examiner was commenced at Cooperstown in 1854 by Robt. Shankband, who soon after withdrew, and the publication was continued by B. W. Burditt until 1857.
The Cherry Valley Gazette was started in Oct. 1818, by Wm. McLean, who continued its publication until 1832. It then passed into the hands of Chas. McLean, who continued it until Jan. 1, 1847, when A. S. Bottaford became proprietor and continued it until 1851. It then reverted to Charles McLean; and in 1863 it was sold to John B. King, who published it 1 year under the name of
The American Banner, when he sold it to A. S. Bottaford, who changed the name back to
The Cherry Valley Gazette, under which title it is still published.
The Otsego Farmers was published at Cherry Valley in 1841.
The Otsego County Courier was commenced at the village of Louisville, in the town of Morris, by Wm. H. S. Wynans, in 1845. The paper was succeeded by
The Village Advertiser, commenced at the same place in 1851. It was a quarterly publication, conducted in 1855, by H. S. Avery.
The Oneonta Herald was commenced Feb. 9, 1853, at Oneonta Village, by L. P. Carpenter, the present publisher.
The Susquehanna News was commenced at Unadilla in Sept. 1840, by Edward A. Graves. In 1841 or 42 it was changed to
Unidilla News, Geo. H. Noble, publisher, and was soon after suspended.
The Weekly Courier was commenced at Unadilla in March, 1843, by Edson S. Jennings.
The Unadilla Weekly Herald was commenced in March, 1845, by Wm. S. Hawley. It was soon after changed to
The Otsego County Herald, and was removed to Delhi, Delaware co., the same year, and its name changed to Voice of the People.
The Unadilla Times was commenced in June, 1856, by John Brown, who sold it in the fall of the same year to E. S. Watson. In June, 1857, it passed into the hands of Geo. B. Fellows, its present publisher.

The first settlement in this co. was made at Cherry Valley, in 1740, by John Lindesay, who, with 3 others, held a patent for a tract of 8,000 acres lying in that town. {During the first winter the snow fell to so great a depth that it was impossible for Mr. Lindesay to go to the nearest settlement, which was 15 mi. distant. His provisions gave out, and his family were in danger of perishing by starvation. In this extremity they were visited by an Indian, who came on snow shoes, and who, on learning their situation, undertook to supply them with food. He went to the Mohawk, and returned with a load of provisions, and continued his visits of mercy until the close of the winter. Mr. Lindesay afterward left the settlement, joined the army, and served for several years.} Mr. Lindesay was a Scotch gentleman of some fortune and distinction, and, by his influence, induced a settlement on his lands of several families, comprising about 30 persons, originally from Scotland and Ireland. A few years later, small settlements were made in the present towns of Springfield, Middlefield, Laurens, Otego, and at other points in the valley of the Susquehanna. These settlements then formed the extreme outposts in the advance of civilization west. They increased very slowly, in consequence of the fear of Indian hostilities. In 1765, 25 years after the first settlement, but 40 families had located at Cherry Valley. At the commencement of the Revolution it was still a frontier settlement. On the 11th of Oct. 1778, it was attacked by the tories and Indians, under the lead of Butler and Brant, and a horible massacre ensued. The family of Robert Wells, father of the late John Wells of New York, consisting of 12 person, were brutally murdered; and one of the tories boasted that he killed Mr. Wells while at prayer. John Wells, the only member of the family who escaped, was at school in Schenectady at the time. The wife and daughter of Mr. Dunlop were murdered in cold blood, as were also the wife and 4 children of Mr. Mitchell. Thirty-two of the inhabitants, mostly women and children, and 16 Continental officers and soldiers, were killed; the residue of the inhaabitants were taken prisoners and carried off, and all the buildings in the place were burned. All the frontier settlements were ravaged, and nearly every building, except those belonging to tories, was burned. These horrible outrages aroused the whole country, and in 1779 Gen. Sullivan, at the head of a large body of troops, was sent against the Western tribes. In Feb. Gen. Clinton, with a force of 1,200 men, marched up the Mohawk, and thence opened a road to Otsego Lake, a distance of 20 mi. At the foot of the lake he halted and built a dam across the outlet, and prepared boats to descend the stream. When the lake was sufficiently high, the boats were launched, the dam was broken down, and the army descended the river on the flood thus produced. The Indians upon the banks, witnessing the extraordinary rise of the river at midsummer without any apparent cause, were struck with superstitious dread, and in the very outset were disheartened at the apparent interposition of the Great Spirit in favor of their foes. Gen. Clinton's forces joined Sullivan on the Chemung. At the close of the war, settlements progressed with great rapidity; and much of the best land in the co. was taken up before the fertile lands in the western part of the State were opened to immigration.

OTSEGO COUNTY - TOWNS PORTION

BURLINGTON -- was formed from Otsego, April 10, 1792. Pittsfield was taken off in 1797, and Edmeston in 1808. It is an interior town, lying N. W. of the center of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland divided into 3 general ridges extending N. and S. These ridges are about 400 ft. above the valleys, and are arable to their summits. The streams are Butternut Creek, flowing S. through the center, and Wharton Creek, flowing S. W. through the W. part. The soil upon the hills is a slaty loam, in many places underlaid by hardpan, and in the valleys a gravelly loam. Burlington Green, (Burlington p.o.,) on Butternut Creek, near the center, contains 3 churches and 118 inhabitants; Burlington Flats, ( (p.v.,) on Wharton Creek, N. W. of the center, 2 churches, a tannery, gristmill, sawmill, and about 30 dwellings. and West Burlington, (p.v.,) on Wharton Creek, a church and 143 inhabitants. The first settlement was commenced near West Burlington, in 1799, by Robert Garrat and Eber and Benjamin Harrington.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed at Burlington Green, in 1793; Rev. James Southworth was the first minister.2

1 Paul Gardner settled in 1792, and Benj. Card, Willis Pottter, Caleb Gardner, Alexander Parker, Ira Johnson, John Johnson, Lemuel Hubbell, and Sam'l Hubbard, about the same time or soon after, in the vicinity of Burlington Flats. Augustus and Adolphus Walbridge erected the first mill, at the same place.
2 There are 7 churches in town; 4 Bap., Presb., Scotch Presb, and Friends.

BUTTERNUTS -- was formed from Unadilla, Feb. 5, 1796. Morris was taken off in 1849, and a part of Unadilla was annexed in 1857. It lies upon the W. border of the co. S. W. of the center. Its surface is a hilly upland, divided into several ridges extending N. and S. Unadilla River, forming its W. boundary, is bordered by a narrow intervale, from which the highlands rise in a series of steep bluffs to a height of 500 to 600 ft. Butternut Creek flows S. W. in a deep valley through near the center of the town. A large number of smaller streams, tributaries to these, flow in deep valleys among the hills, dividing the ridges and giving to the region a peculiar broken character. The hills are arable to their summits, and the soil is a good quality of red shale and gravelly loam. Gilbertsville, (Butternuts p.o.,) near the center, contains 4 churches, the Gilbertsville Academy and Collegiate Institute, 3 carriage factories, tannery, and various other manufacturing establishments. Pop. 442. Settlements were commenced in 1788-89, at Gilbertsville, by Gordon and Wyatt Chamberlin and Abijah Gilbert.1 The first church (Cong.) was formed Sept. 3, 1797; Rev. Wm. Stone was the first preacher.2

1 Daniel and John Eastwood were among the first settlers in the W. part of the town, and Joseph T. Gilbert, Wm. Munson, Dr. John Burgess, John Marsh, and Joseph Cox near the center. The first child born was Jacob M. Houck, about 1790, and the first death of an adult was that of Saml. Shaw in 1799; the first marriage was that of Jos. Cox and Betsey Nichols. The first school was taught by Levi Halbert, at the home of Jos. Cox. Abijah Gilbert kept the first inn, at Gilbertsville, and Timothy Dimmick the first store in town, about 1790. The first mill was erected by Joseph Shaw and Abijah Gilbert.
2 The census reports 5 churches: Cong., Presb., Prot. E., Bap., M.E.

CHERRY VALLEY -- was formed from Canajoharie, (Montgomery co.,) Feb. 16, 1791. Middlefield, Springfield, and Worcester were taken off in 1797, and Roseboom in 1854. It is the N. E. corner town in the co. Its surface is a hilly and mountainous upland; and much of it is too rough and rocky for cultivation. Mount Independence, S. E. of the center, is a rocky eminence 1,000 ft. above the valleys and 2,000 ft. aabove tide. It is the highest summit in the co. A range of highlands extends along the N. W. boundary. The central and S. parts of the town are drained by the head branches of the Susquehanna, and the N. part by tributaries of the Mohawk. The soil upon the uplands is a slaty and gravelly loam, and in the valleys a fine quality of calcareous loam. Upon a small creek in the N. part are the Te-ka-ha-ra-wa Falls, 160 feet in height. In the vicinity are several sulphur springs and quarries of limestone. In the N.E. corner are several springs of weak brine, from which salt was formerly manufactured. Cherry Valley,1 (p.v.,) at the head of the valley of Cherry Valley Creek, was incorp. June 8, 1812. It contains 3 churches, the Cherry Valley Academy,2 a bank, newspaper office, and gristmill. Pop. 933. Salt Springville,3 (p.o.) is a hamlet in the N.W. corner. The first settlement was made on the present site of the village in 1739, by John Lindesay, an emigrant from the Londonderry Colony of Scotch-Irish in N. H.4 The first religious services were held in 1743, by Rev. Samuel Dunlop, a native of Ireland.5

1 This place has been the residence of several of the distinguished political and professional men in the State, among whom were John Wells, Esq., the distinguished lawyer of N. Y. City; Hon. Wm. W. Campbell, author of the "Annals of Tryon Co; Rev. Eliphalet Nott; Jabex D. Hammond, Esq., author of "Political History of New York; Hon. Levi Beardsley, author of "Reminiscences of Otsego; Alvan Stewart, Esq.; and James O. Morse, Esq.
2 This institution was incorp. Feb. 8, 1796, and is the oldest academy W. of Schenectady. Its first principal was Rev. Solomon Spaulding, the reputed author of the Book of Mormon; his successor was Rev. Eliphalet Nott, the venerable President of Union College. The institution has maintained a high reputation for more than half a century; and the female department under its present organization has attained a wide celebrity.
3 Named from the brine springs in this vicinity.
4 Mr. Lindesay was one of the original proprietors of Cherry Valley, under a patent granted in 1738, by George Clarke, then Lieut. Governor of New York, to John Lindesay, Jacob Roseboom, and others. David Ramsey and James Campbell, from Londonderry, N. H., and Wm. Galt and Wm. Dickson, from Ireland, settled on the patent, in 1742, at and near the village. John Wells, from Ireland, settled at the village, in 1744. From the fear of Indian hostilities, the settlement of Cherry Valley procceded slowly, there being in 1752, 12 years after the first settlement, but 8 families in the town; and at the breaking out of the Revolution, in 1775, the number of families did not exceed 60. James Ritchie kept the first store and inn, anterior to the war; and James Campbell erected the first gristmill, in 1743-44. John Wells erected the second gristmill. Rev. Samuel Dunlop taught a classical school at his own house, in 1743-44, -- the first probably, of the kind W. of the Hudson. The whole settlement was destroyed by the Indians, and the greater part of the inhabitants were murdered and taken prisoners, on the evening of Oct. 11, 1778. See page County Portion, above.
5 The cens. (sic) reports 5 churches: Cong., Presb., Prot. E., Bap., M.E.

DECATUR 1 -- was formed from Worcester, March 25, 1808. It lies upon the E. line of the co., S. of the center. The surface is hilly, and broken by the narrow valleys of several small streams. The hills generally have gradual slopes and rounded summits, and are elevated 250 to 300 ft. above the valleys. The town is drained S. by Oak and Parker Creeks, flowing into the Schenevas. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. Decatur, (p.v.,) near the S. W. corner, contains a church and 120 inhabitants. The first settlements were commenced in or about 1790, by Jacob Kinney, originally from New Milford, Conn., at or near the village of Decatur.2 The first religious association (M. E.) was formed at an early period.3

1 Named in honor of Commodore Stephen Decatur.
2 Jacob Brown, John and Calvin Seward, and Oliver McIntyre settled soon after; and __ Sloan, from Columbia co., settled near the village, in 1797. Mr. Sloan opened the first tavern and the first store, N. of the village. John Champion erected the first gristmill, and James Stewart the first carding and fulling mill, about 1810. The first school was taught by Samuel Thurber, in 1798. The first death is supposed to have been that of Mr. King, about 1797.
3 The census reports 2 churches; M. E. and Bap.

EDMESTON -- was formed from Burlinigton, April 1, 1808. It lies upon the W. border of the co., N. of the center. The surface is an elevated upland, broken by numerous irregular valleys. The highest elevations are 400 to 500 ft. above Unadilla River, which forms the W. boundary. Wharton Creek flows across the S. E. corner. Mill Creek and several other small streams take their rise in the town. Smiths Pond is a small sheet of water in the N. E. corner. The soil is a sandy and clayey loam. Edmeston Center (Edmeston p.o.) contains 3 churches, a grist and saw mill, and tannery. Pop. 275. West Edmeston, ((p.v.,) on Unadilla River, and partly in Brookfield, (Madison co.,) contains a church and 35 houses. South Edmeston, (p.v.,) on the Unadilla, contains 30 houses. Of the first settlement in town, authentic data of the precise date are wanting. It was made, however, on Unadilla River, during the interval between the close of the French War, in 1763, and the commencement of that of the Revolution, in 1775, by Col. Edmeston, an officer of the French War, and Percifer Carr, a faithful soldier who had served under him.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed at Taylor Hill, March 8, 1794; Rev. Stephen Taylor was the first preacher.2

1 At the close of the war, Col. Edmeston, for his military services, received the grant of a tract of land covering a large portion of the town on which he made the first settlement. At his death the lands fell to heirs and minor children residing in England, from whom no safe title could be obtained for many years,--which greatly retarded the settlement of the town. During the Revolution, the hired men of Mr. Cary were killed while at work, his barn burned, his property destroyed, and himself and family were taken prisoners by the British and Indians and detained to the close of the war. Abel De Forest and Gideon De Forest were among the early settlers on the Unadilla; Aden Deming and James Kenada, at Edmeston; and Stephen Taylor, on Taylor Hill, where the first school was taught. Rufus Graves kept the first inn; and James Kenada erected the first gristmill, both at Edmeston Center.
2 The census reports 5 churches; 2 Bap., 7th da. Bapt., M. E., and Univ.

EXETER -- was formed from Richfield, March 25, 1799. It is an interior town, lying N.W. of the center of the co. The surface is hilly and broken, consisting mainly of elevated uplands. Angel Cliff and Town Cliff Hills, in the E. part of the town, are 400 to 500 ft. above the valleys. The town is drained E. by several small streams flowing into Schuyler Lake, and S. by Butternut and Wharton Creeks, both of which rise in this town. The soil is clay and gravelly loam, well adapted to grazing. Exeter Center (Exeter p.o.) contains a church and 106 inhabitants. Schuylers Lake, (p.v.,) at the outlet of Schuyler Lake, on the E. border of the town, contains 2 churches and 280 inhabitants. West Exeter (p.v.) contains 1 church and 100 inhabitants. The first settlements were made by John Tunnicliff, near Schuyler Lake, and William Angel, on Angel Hill, in 1789.1 The first religious association (Presb.) was formed at Exeter Center, in 1800; Rev. T. W. Duncan was the first regular preacher.2

1 About the same time, or soon after, Asa Williams settled in the S. part of the town; Joshua and Caleb Angel, on Angel Hill; Seth Tubbs and Bethel Martin, at West Exeter; and M. Cushman on the Rockduga. Eliphalet Brockway kept the first inn, at Schuyler Lake; and C. Jones, the first store, in 1810. John Hartshorne erected the first gristmill, on Herkimer Creek.
2 The census reports 6 churches; 2 M. E., Cong., Bap., Prot. E., and Union.

HARTWICK 1 -- was formed from Otsego, March 30, 1802. Its N. line was changed in 1803. It is the central town in the co. It is a hilly upland, the highest summits being 200 to 350 ft. above the valleys. Its E. part is drained by the Susquehanna, and its W. part by Otego Creek. The soil is chiefly a sandy and gravelly loam, with an occasional mixture of clay. Hartwick, (p.v.,) on Otego Creek, in the W. part, contains 4 churches, 2 iron founderies, several mills, and other manufacturing establishments. Pop. about 400. Hartwick Seminary, (p.v.,) in the valley of the Susquehanna, contains the "Hartwick Theological and Classical Seminary, 2 a church, and 20 dwellings. South Hartwick (p.v.) contains a church and 17 houses. Toddsville, (p.v.,) upon the line of Otsego, in the N. E. corner of the town, contains the Union Cotton Factory3 and about a dozen dwellings. Clintonville, a hamlet in the S. E. corner, is the seat of Clinton Cotton Factory.4 The Hartwick Patent, including the greater part of the area of this town, was granted April 22, 1761; and settlements were made in the town before the Revolution.5 The first church (Bap.) was formed Aug. 19, 1795; Rev. John Bostwick was the first settled preacher.6

1 Named from Christopher Hartwick, the patentee of the Hartwick's Patent.
2 This institution, established in 1815, was originally endowed by John Christopher Hartwick with a fund of $80,000.
3 The Union Cotton Factory was erected in 1809, and burned down and rebuilt in 1848. It gives employment to about 40 hands.
4 The Clinton Factory, erected in 1847,gives employment to 35 hands, and turns out 624,000 yards of printed cottons per annum.
5 Lot Crosby and Stephen Skiff were among the first settlers at Hartwick Village, and Elijah and Rufus Hawkins and N. Lyon in the N. E. part of the town. James Butterfield kept the first inn, and Daniel Laurens the first store, of what is called White House. The first mill was erected by Samuel Mudge, at Hartwick Village.
6 The census reports 6 churches; 2 Christian, Bap., Luth., Presb., and M. E.

LAURENS -- was formed from Otsego, April 2, 1810. It is an interior town, lying S. W. of the center of the co. With the exception of the broad velley of Otsego Creek, the surface is high and hilly. It is drained S. by Otego Creek and several tributaries, among which are Harrisons and Camps Creeks. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam, in some parts slaty, and generally productive. One and a half mi. N. of Laurens is a sulphur spring. Laurens, (p.v.,) on Otsego Creek, in the E. part, was incorp. April 22, 1834. It contains 3 churches, 1 flouring mill, the Otsego Cotton Mills,1 an iron foundery, sawmill, and tannery. Pop. 726. Jacksonville, (Mount Vision p.o.,) in the N. E. corner, contains 2 churches, a grist and saw mill, and about 30 houses. West Laurens (p.v.) contains about 15 houses. Settlements were made in this town prior to the Revolution, by Joseph Magall and Richard Smith, a little N. of Laurens Village; by John Sleeper, at the village; and by William Ferguson, a little S. of it.2 The first religious association was formed by the Friends, who erected a meetinghouse in 1800.3

1 This factory was erected in 1816 (may read 1846), by an investment of $40,000. It employs 40 persons, and makes sheetings exclusively, to the value of $50,000 per annum.
2 Griffin Crafts kept the first inn, about 1812; and Erastus and Alex. Brown, the first store. John Sleeper erected the first gristmill, and Daniel Johnson, the first factory.
3 The census reports 6 churches; 2 M. E., Friends, Bap., Christian, and Presb.

MARYLAND -- was formed from Worcester, March 25, 1808. It lies on the S. line of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by the deep ravines of the streams. Schenevas Creek flows S. E. through near the center and receives several tributaries from the N. South Hill, a steep, unbroken ridge 350 to 500 ft. above the valleys, extends along the S. bank of the creek through the town; and from its summit the surface spreads out into a rocky and broken upland, extending into the S. border. The soil is principally a sandy loam, and is best adapted to grazing. Maryland, (p.v.,) near the center of the town, contains a church and 20 houses; Schenevus, (p.v.,) near the E. border, a church, tannery, and 383 inhabitants. Chaseville is a p.o. The first settlement was made by Thomas Thompson and his son, John, from Columbia co., in 1793.1 The first religious association (Presb.) was formed at an early period; Rev. Mr. Ralph was the first preacher.2

1 In 1794, Josiah Chase, Col. J. Houghton, Ezekiel Rice, and Caleb Byington, from Vt., and Daniel Houghton and Wilder Rice, settled near Schenevus, Daniel Slaver, from Mass., settled at Schenevus, and Joseph Howe on Elk Creek. The first gristmill was built by Israel Spencer, and the first sawmill by Jotham Houghton, in 1795, on Schenevas Creek. Josiah Chase kept the first inn, near Roseville; and Stephen G. Virgil the first fulling and cloth dressing mill. The first death was that of John Rice, killed by the fell of a tree.
2 The census reports 4 churches; 3 M. E., and Bap.

MIDDLEFIELD -- was formed from Cherry Valley, March 3, 1797. It is an interior town, lying N. E. of the center of the co. The surface is a hilly upland, abrupty descending to Otsego Lake and Outlet, which form its W. boundary. The summits of the hills are 400 to 600 ft. above the valleys. Cherry Valley Creek flows S. W. through the E. part of the town. The soil is a gravelly and sandy loam. Middlefield Center, (p.v.,) in the N. part of the town, contains 15 dwellings. Clarksville,1 (Middlefield p.o.,) on Cherry Valley Creek, contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 260 inhabitants. The first settlement was made about 1755, by emigrants originally from Ireland and Scotland.2 The first religious association (Presb.) was formed by Rev. Andrew Oliver, in 1805; the first church edifice was erected in 1808.3

1 About 2 miles N. of Clarksville is a rock called by the Indians Nis-ka-yu-na. (probably meaning Council Rock.) where various tribes from the S. were accustomed to meet the Mohawks in council. In former days the rock was covered with hieroglyphics, but from its shaly nature all are now obliterated.
2 Among those who settled prior to the Revolutionary War were Wm. Cook, Daniel, Benjamin, and Reuben McCollum, Samuel and Andrew Wilson, Andrew Cochran, Andrew Cameron, and __Hall, all in the N. part of the town. They came from the N. of Ireland, but were mostly of Scotch descent. Among those who settled near the close of and after the war were Benjamin Gilbert, in the N. part, in 1780; Reuben Beals, in the S. part, in 1786; Wm. Compton, Bernard Temple, __Rice, Stephen and Thomas Pratt, Whitney Juvill, and Moses Rich, all of Mass. and Wm. Cook, from England, in 1787; __Dunham, Wm. Temple, and Daniel Moore, from New England in the S. part of the town, soon after. Hannah Hubbell taught the first school about 1790. Alexander McCollum and Andrew Cameron kept the first inns, and Benjamin Johnson the first store, in 1790. Mr. McCullum also built the first sawmill, before the (sentence not finished).
3 The census report 4 churches in town; 2 Bap., Presb., and M. E.

MILFORD -- was formed from Unadilla, Feb. 5, 1796, as "Suffrage." Its name was changed April 8, 1800. A part of Otego was taken off in 1830. It is an interior town, S. of the center of the co. The Susquehanna flows S. W. through the town, in a deep valley bordered by steep hillsides, and divides the surface into two distinct ridges. Crumhorn Mt., on the E. border, is 500 to 600 ft. above the valleys; and the W. hills are 300 to 400 ft. high. Crumhorn Lake, a body of water 3 mi. in circumference, lies upon the summit of Crumhorn Mt. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. Milford Center (Milford p.o.) contains 2 churches; pop. 250.1 Collierville and Portlandville are p. offices. The first settlement was made on the Susquehanna, about 1770, by a squatter named Carr. As the settlements made at the period were broken up by the border wars which followed, little or no progress was made until the close of the Revolution.2 The first religious services (Cong.) were held near Milford Village, in 1793, by Rev. __Reed, the first preacher. The census reports 6 churches.3

1 Milford contains 2 tanneries and several manufactories.
2 Matthew Cully, from Cherry Valley, and George Mumford settled near Milford Center in 1783. Abraham and Jacob Beals, and a family named Ford, all from Mass., settled at and near Milford Village in 1784. Henry Scott, from Ireland, settled a little N. of the village in 1786. The first child born was David Beals, in Sept. 1786; the first marriage, that of James Brown and Rhoda Marvin, in 1788; and the first death, that of Mrs. Beals, about the same time. Increase Niles taught the first school, in 1790. Matthew Cully and Isaac Collier kept the first inn, below Milford Village, and Isaac Edson the first store, at the village, in 1794. The first gristmill was erected by David Cully, in 1788; and the first sawmill by Matthew Cully, in 1792-93.
3 2 M. E., Presb., Bap., Christian, and Friends.

MORRIS -- was formed from Butternuts, April 6, 1849. A part of Pittsfield was annexed in 1859. It lies upon the W. border of the co., S. of the center. Its surface is a hilly upland, divided into two principal ridges by Butternut Creek, which flows S. W. through near the center. The W. ridge terminates in a series of steep bluffs bordering upon Unadilla River, which forms the W. boundary of the town. The soil upon the uplands is composed of clay, gravel, and disintegrated slate, and in the valleys of gravelly loam. Louisville, (Morris p.o.,) on Butternut Creek, contains 4 churches, a cotton factory, 2 tanneries, a gristmill, and several other manufacturing establishments.1 Pop. about 500. Maple Grove is a p.o. The first settlement was made about 1770, by Andre Renouard, at Elm Grove.2 The first church (Bap.) was organized Aug. 28, 1793; Rev. John Lawton was the first preacher.3

1 The Butternuts Cotton and Woolen Factory was erected at the village of Louisville in 1812. It employs constantly over 60 hands.
2 Benjamin, Joseph Caleb, Benjamin, Jr. and Nathan Lull and Jonathan Moore, from Dutchess co. settled in town in 1773. Ebenezer Knapp, Jacob Morris, and Andrew Cathcart were also among the early settlers. The first marriage was that of Joseph Lull and Martha Knapp, in 1776. The first inn was kept by Sturgess Bradley, and the first store by Louis and Paschal Franchot, at Louisville. Louis De Vallier erected the first gristmill, on Aldrich Creek, and Paschal Franchot, John G. Morris, and A. G. Washburn, the first factory.
3 The census reports 5 churches; Bap., Friends, Prot. E., M. E. and Univ. A part of Pittsfield was taken off in 1859.

NEW LISBON -- was formed from Pittsfield, April 7, 1806, as "Lisbon". Its name was changed April 6, 1808. It is an interior town, lying W. of the center of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, divided into several ridges by the deep ravines of the streams. The highest summits are 300 to 500 ft. above the valleys. The principal streams are Butternut Creek, flowing S. through the W. part, and Otego Creek, in the E. Gilberts Lake is a small sheet of water on the S. border. The soil upon the uplands is a clay and slaty loam, and in the valleys a gravelly loam. Garrattsville, (p.v.,) on Butternut Creek, contains a church, gristmill, sawmill, and tannery. Pop. 192. Noblesville (New Lisbon p.o.) contains a church, gristmill, and 25 dwellings. New Lisbon Center and Stetsonville are hamlets. The first settlement was made in 1775, by William Lull and Increase Thurston.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed on West Otego Creek, in 1804, by Elder Micah French. A Cong. church was formed near Noblesville, April 21, 1805, by Rev. Wm. Stone.2

1 Among the early settlers were S. W. Park, Moses Thurston, Hughey Marks, O. Park, William Pierce, __ Brook, John Johnson, William and John Garratt, all in the vicinity of Garratsville. Elnathan Nobles was among the first settlers at Noblesville; from him the place derived its name. Joseph Balcom and John Stewart were among the first settlers at Stetsonville. In 1778 the first settlers were driven off by the Indians and tories. Their buildings were burned and their crops destroyed. After the close of the war, all the first settlers returned to their improvements. Sally Thurston was the first child born in town; James McCollum taught the first school; Charles Eldredge kept the first inn, in the S. part of the town; and William Garratt the first store, at Garratsville. Louis De Villier, a Frenchman, erected the first mill.
2 The census reports 3 churches in town; Bap., Cong., and M. E.

ONEONTA -- was formed from Unadilla, Feb. 5, 1796, as "Otego." Its name was changed April 17, 1830. It is the central town upon the S. border of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by the deep valley of the Susquehanna, which extends N. E. and S. W. through the S. part. Otego Creek and several small streams flow into the Susquehanna from the N. A range of hills 500 ft. high extends along the S. E. bank of the Susquehanna. The center and N. part are hilly, and broken by narrow and irregular valleys. The summits are 150 to 300 ft. above the valleys. The soil is gravel, slate, and clay on the uplands, and gravelly loam and alluvium upon the river bottoms. Oneonta, (p.v.,) in the S. part, on the Susquehanna was incorp. Oct. 14, 1848. It contains 3 churches, a newspaper office, woolen factory, carriage factory, iron foundery, tannery, gristmill, sawmill, and distillery. Pop. 678. West Oneonta (p.v.) contains 15 dwellings; Oneonta Plains, 2 churches, and a dozen houses. Henry Scramlin and __ Youngs settled in town previous to the Revolution.1 The first religious association (Presb.) was formed at Oneonta Village, in 1786; Rev. Alexander Conkey was the first preacher, when the church was built in 1816.2

1 Aaron Brink, Frederick Brown, and __ McDonald were among the early settlers at Oneonta Village. James Youngs settled at the mouth of Charlotte River; Baltus Himmel, N. of the village; Abraham Houghtaling, Jacob Elias Brewer, and Peter Swartz, in the N. part of the town, in 1786; and Josiah Peck, on Oneonta Creek. The first birth was that of Abraham Houghtaling, 2d, in 1786. Baltus Himmel kept the first inn, and Peter Dintney the first store. John Vanderworker erected the first gristmill.
2 The census reports 5 churches; 2 M. E., Bap., Presb., and F. W. Bap.

OTEGO -- was formed from Franklin (Delaware co.) and Unadilla, April 12, 1822, as "Huntsville." A part of Milford was annexed and its name changed April 17, 1830. It lies on the S. border of the co., W. of the center. Its surface is a hilly upland, divided by the Susquehanna, which flows S. W. through the S. part. The N. part is separated into ridges 200 to 400 ft. high, all extending N. and S. The streams are Mill Creek, east and west branches of Otsdawa Creek, Flax Creek, and Center Brook. The soil is a clay and sandy loam. Otego, (p.v.,) on tje Susquehanna contains 4 churches and 331 inhabitants. Otsdawa, (p.v.,) on Otsdawa Creek, contains a church, tannery, mill, and 20 dwellings. Center Brook is a p.o. on the stream of the same name. Settlements were made in this town, along the Susquehanna, soon after the close of the Revolution; but the precise date of the first settlement is not known.1 The first church (Presb.) was organized at Otego Village, Sept. 17, 1805; Rev. Abner Benedict was the first preacher.2
1 Ransom Hunt, Abraham Blakeley, John Birdsall, Benjamin Cummings, Jacob Yates, Joseph Pierce, and Barnard Overhyer, were among the first settlers at Otego Village and along the river. Phineas Cook settled on the E. branch of the Otsdawa in 1800, and built there the first cloth dressing mill, in 1801. Ransom Hunt kept the first inn, and erected the first gristmill in town. Thaddeus R. Austin opened the first store.
2 The census reports 6 churches; Presb., Prot. E., Bap., F. W. Bap., Christian, and M. E.

OTSEGO -- was formed as a part of Montgomery co., March 7, 1788, and originally included the greater part of Otsego co. Burlington, Richfield, and Unadilla were taken off in 1792, Hartwick in 1802, and Laurens in 1810. It is an interior town, lying upon the W. bank of Otsego Lake, N. of the center of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, lying between Otsego and Schuyler Lakes and descending abruptly toward each. The summits are 300 to 500 ft. above the water, the uplands being divided into two ridges by Fly Creek, which flows S. through the center. Oak Creek, the outlet of Schyler Lake, flows S. through the W. part. The soil is clay, gravel, and sandy loam. Cooperstown, (p.v.,) at the foot of Otsego Lake, was incorp. April 3, 1807, by the name of "Otsego. Its name was changed to Cooperstown June 12, 1812. Besides the co. buildings, it contains 6 churches, 3 banks, 2 newspaper offices, an academy,1 the buildings of the Cooperstown Seminary and Female Collegiate Institute,2 a flouring mill, and various manufacturing establishments.3 The location of the village is pleasant and attractive from its many elegant private residences and historic associations. Pop. about 1,500.4 Fly Creek, (p.v.,) upon the stream of the same name, contains 3 churches, several manufactories,5 and 30 houses. Oaksville, (p.v.,) S. of the center, contains a church, factory, and 15 houses. Otsego Lake is a p.o. Toddsville (p.v.) is on the line of Hartwick. Settlements were made at Cooperstown and Fly Creek, in 1784-85, by Judge Wm. Cooper, Wm. Jarvis, William Ellison, Israel Guild, John Howard, and Elihu Phinney.6 The first religious association (Presb. and Cong.) was formed Dec. 29, 1798; Rev. Isaac Lewis was the first preacher.7

1 The first academy was formed in 1795, and the building burned down March 31, 1809, and has not been rebuilt. A classical school has been sustained, and has prospered for most of the time, for half a century.
2 This institution was established and opened in 1854, and extensive and commodious buildings were erected at a cost of $20,000. It started with J. L. G. McKown as Principal. It suspended operations in 1857, was purchased by R. C. Flack in 1859 and the school is again in operation, with indications of permanent prosperity.
3 The Hope Cotton Factory, erected in 1813, with an aggregate capital of about $100,000, has through a long series of years given employment to 80 persons. After undergoing various changes in construction, machinery, and proprietorship, the establishment is still continued, with reduced operations.
4 J. Fenimore Cooper, the novelist, resided here; and his mansion and grounds were among the finest in Central N. Y.
5 At this place is a fork factory, with a capital of $75,000, employing 30 men; a pail factory; a manufactory of agricultural implements and machinery, employing a capital of $25,000; and a foundery and machine shop, employing 25 men.
6 John Miller, Widow Johnson, Wm. Abbott, __ Avereil settled in 1786. The first child was Wm. Jarvis, at Fly Creek, in 1787. The first deaths in town were those of two deserting soldiers, who were shot by order of Gen. Cliinton, in 17, before the settlements were commenced. The first school was taught at Cooperstown, by Joshua Dewey, in 1788. Wm. Ellison opened the first inn, in 1786; and Judge Wm. Cooper the first store, in 1789-90. In 1779, General Clinton, on his way to John Sullivan's expedition, built a dam across the outlet of the lake to raise the waters sufficiently to float down on the Susquehanna the boat, containing his men and military stores. The remains of this dam are still visible. In 1784, Gen. Washington, on a journey of observation, visited the foot of Otsego Lake. In 1786, John Miller felled a large tree across the outlet to serve as a bridge. Judge Cooper removed his family from N. J. in 1790.
7 The census reports 10 churches; 3 M. E., 2 Preby., 2 Univ., Prot. E., and R. C.

PITTSFIELD -- was formed from Burlington, March 24, 1797. New Lisbon was taken off in 1806, and a part of Morris in 1859. It is centrally situated upon the W. line of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, terminating in abrupt declivities upon Unadilla River, which forms its W. boundary. Wharton Creek flows across the N. W. corner, and several small tributaries of Butternut Creek flow through the S. part. The soil is generally a slaty and gravelly loam. Pittsfield, (p.o.,) on the Unadilla, contains 10 houses. Jacob Lull, Aaron Nobles, Hubbard Goodrich, and Matthew Bennett settled in the valley of the Unadilla, about 1793.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed at an early period, in the S. E. part of the town. The only church (Union) now in town was organized in the E. part in 1849. A part of Morris was annexed in 1859.

1 Seth Harrington and Benj. Eddy settled in the E. part of the town, soon after the settlements on the Unadilla. The first school was taught by Benjamin Pendleton, at Pittsfield P.O. Matthew Bennett kept the first inn, in 1797, and Henry Randall the first store in 1810, at the P.O. Benj. Atwell built the first mill, and the Arkwright Manufacturing Company the first cotton factory, both on the Unadilla.

PLAINFIELD -- was formed from Richfield, March 25, 1799. It is the N.W. corner town of the co. Its surface is a broken and hilly upland. Unadilla River, forming the W. boundary, is bordered by steep bluffs rising to the height of 400 to 600 ft. The soil is a clay and sandy loam. Unadilla Forks, (p.v.,) at the junction of the E. and W. branches of Unadilla River, contains 2 churches, a hoe factory, flouring mill, sawmill, and machine shop. Pop. 253. Plainfield Center contains a church and 15 houses; Spooners Corners is a p.o.; Leonardsville, (p.v.,) on the Unadilla, in the S. part, is mostly in Madison co. The first settlement was made at and near Plainfield Center, in 1793, by Ruggles Spooner, Elias Wright, and John Kilbourne.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed and the church erected in 1800; Rev. John Wait the first preacher.2

1 Sam'l Williams settled on the Unadilla, in the N. part, and Benj. and Abel Clark, at the Forks, about the same time. The first school was taught in Spooners Corners, by Jas. Robinson, in 1797-98. Wm. Lincoln kept the first inn, at Lloydville, and Luce and Woodward the first store. Capt. Caleb Brown built the first mill, in 1805, on the Unadilla.
2 The census reports 4 churches; 2 F. W. Bap., Presb., Bap.

RICHFIELD -- was formed from Otsego, April 10, 1792. Exeter and Plainfield were taken off in 1799. It is the extreme northern town of the co. Its surface is rolling and moderately hilly, with a mean elevation of 150 to 200 ft. above Schuyler Lake, __ Pray and Nine Hills, on either side of the head of the lake, rising about 200 ft. higher. Schuyler Lake, in the S. E. corner, occupies a deep valley; and into it flow several small streams from the N. and W. The soil is of a diversified character, consisting of gravel, slate, clay, and sandy loam, well cultivated and productive. About 500,000 pounds of cheese are made in the town annually, -- being more than double that made in any other town in the co. Richfield Springs, (p.v.,) near the head of Schuyler Lake, in the N. E. corner of the town, contains 3 churches, a flouring mill, and 368 inhabitants.2 Monticello, (Richfield p.o.,) near the center, contains a church and 139 inhabitants. Mayflower is a p.o.; Brighton contains about 15 houses. Settlements were made prior to the Revolution; but they were broken up during the war. The first settlers after the war were John Kimball, Richard and Wm. Pray, John Beardsley, Joseph Coats, and Seth Allen, in 1787.3 The first church (Prot. E.) was formed at Monticello, May 20, 1799; Rev. Daniel Nash was the first preacher.3

1 Richfield Springs--from which the village derives its name--are celebrated for their medicinal properties in the cure of cutaneous disorders and large numbers of invalids are annually attracted here. Professor Reid has given the following as the result of an analysis of a wine gallon of the water of these springs:
Grains. Bicarbonate of magnesia........................................................ 20
Bicarbonate of lime.......................................................................10
Chloride of sodium and magnesia.............................................. 1.05
Sulphate of magnesia....................................................................30
Hydrosulphate of magnesia and lime.......................................... 2
Sulphate of lime.............................................................................. 20
Solid matter......................................................................................153.05
Total Grains 236.10
Sulphurated hydrogen gas, 26.9 inches.
2 Wm. Tunnicliff, Dan'l Hawks, John Hatch, Ebenezor Eaton, and Jos. Rockwell settled at or near Richfield Springs in 1789; Obadiah Beardsley and his son Obadiah, jr., the father and grandfather of the late Levi Beardsley, and Hon. Samuel Beardsley, of Utica settled near Schuylers Lake in 1790. The first birth was that of Jos. Beardsley; and the first marriage, that of Ebenezer Russell and Mrs. Moore. James S. Palmer taught the first school at Richfield Springs; Israel Rawson kept the first inn, and Cyrus Robinson the first store, at the Springs; William Tunnicliff erected the first mill, at the same place.
3 The census reports 7 churches; 3 M. E., 2 Prot. E., Presb., and Univ.

ROSEBOOM 1 -- was formed from Cherry Valley, Nov. 23, 1854. It lies on the E. border of the co., N. of the center. The surface is hilly upland, broken by the valleys of several streams. The hills are generally rounded, and their summits elevated 300 to 350 ft. above Schoharie Kil. The soil is a gravelly loam. Roseboom, (p.v.,) in the N. W. part, on the line of Middlefield, contains a church and 111 inhabitants; and South Valley, (p.v.,) in the S. E. part, 2 churches and 175 inhabitants. Pleasant Brook (p.o.) is a hamlet.2 The settlements in this town were commenced about 1800. There are 5 churches in town.3

1 Names from Abram Roseboom, who was one of the earliest settlers.
2 Abram Roseboom erected the first sawmill and caring and fulling mill, in 1804, at Lodi; Dan'l Antisdale kept the first inn and the first store, at the same place, in 1832. The first gristmill was erected at Lodi, by Cornelius Law, in 1818.
3 The census reports 5 churches; 2 M. E., Evan. Luth., Christian, and Bap.

SPRINGFIELD -- was formed from Cherry Valley, March 3, 1797. It lies upon the N. line of the co., E. of the center. The surface is a rolling and moderately hilly upland, the hills generally rising about 200 ft. above the valleys. Mt. Wellington, E. of the head of Otsego Lake, in the S. part of the town, is 300 to 400 ft. high. Summit Lake in the N. part, in high water discharges its waters both N. and S. The streams are small brooks. In the N. part is a deep sink, called "The Chyle, into which a considerable stream of water runs and flows through a subterranean passage to Braman's Factory, where it again appears on the surface. The sink is tunnel-shaped, 240 feet in circumference and 15 ft. deep. After heavy rains it is sometimes filled with water, which, while discharging through the orifice below, often moves round in rapid gyrations. The soil is a black and yellow loam, resting upon limestone and slate. More hops are grown in this town than in any other town in the co. Springfield Center (p.v.) contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 15 houses; and East Springfield (p.v.) a church and 20 houses. Springfield is a p.o. near the center. The first settlements were made in 1762, by John Kelly, Richard Ferguson, and James Young, from Ireland, at East Springfield; and Gustavus Klumph and Jacob Tygart, at the head of Otsego Lake. Most of these settlers were driven off during the war.1 The first church (Bap.) was formed at an early period; Rev. __ Fairman was the first preacher.2

1 Mr. Tygart had two sons, John and Jacob, who were taken prisoners and carried to Canada during the war. Soon after the war, Elisha Dodge, Col. Herrick, and Aaron Bigelow, from Conn., and Eli Parsons, Eliakim Sheldon, and Isaac White, from Mass., settled in the central part of the town. The first inn was kept by Eli Parsons, at East Springfield, and the first store by Thomas and Stacy Horner. Garret Staats erected the first gristmill and sawmill, before the war.
2 The census reports 7 churches; 3 M. E., 2 Bap., Prot. E., and Presb.

UNADILLA -- was formed from Otsego, April 10, 1792. Butternuts, "Suffrage," (now Milford,) and "Otsego" (now Oneonta) were taken off in 1796, a part of "Huntsville" (now Otego) in 1822, and a part of Butternuts in 1857. It lies at the junction of Unadilla and Susquehanna Rivers, in the S. W. corner of the co. The surface is a rolling and hilly upland, the highest summits being 400 to 500 ft. above the valleys. Unadilla River, forming the W. boundary, Susquehanna River, the E., and Sandy Hill Creek, in the E. part, are the principal streams. The soil on the river bottoms is an alluvial loam, and on the uplands, a slaty and gravelly loam. Unadilla, (p.v.,) on the Susquehanna, was incorp. April 2, 1827. It contains 4 churches, the Unadilla Academy, a bank, newspaper office, woolen factory, furnace, 2 tanneries, a flouring mill, sawmill, paper mill, and various other manufactories. Pop. 795. Unadilla Center (p.v.) contains a church and 25 houses; Sand Hill, on Sand Hill Creek, in the E. part, contains 2 churches, a tannery, and a dozen houses. Settlements were made at Unadilla, along the valley of the Susquehanna, prior to the Revolution1; of the precise date, and by whom, no records or tradition inform us. A conference took place between Gen. Herkimer and Brant, the Indian warrior, at Unadilla, in July, 1777. The first church (Prot. E.) was formed Nov. 1, 1809; Rev. Russell Wheeler was the first pastor.2

1 Among the early settlers were Dan'l Bissell, Abijah Beach, and Peter Rogers, at Unadilla Center, Abel De Dorest and Wm. Buckley, in the E. part of the town. Solomon Martin kept the first store, in 1800, and Sampson Crocker the first gristmill. NOTE BY TYPIST: This footnote appeared on the page, but there was no corresponding footnote number in the text. Its location here seems reasonable.
2 The census reports 7 churches; 3 M. E., 2 Bap., Prot. E., and Presb.

WESTFORD -- was formed from Worcester, March 25, 1808. It is an interior town, lying S. E. of the center of the co. Its surface is hilly, the highest summits being 400 to 500 ft. above the valleys. It is drained S. by Elk Creek and W. by tributaries of Cherry Valley Creek. The soil is a sandy loam of good quality. Westford, (p.v.,) a little E. of the center of the town, contains 2 churches and 12 houses. Westville, (p.v.,) in the W. on the line of Middleford, contains 3 churches and 15 houses. The first settlements were made about 1790, in the S. E. part, by Thomas Sawyer, Benjamin Chase, Oliver Salisbury, Alphenus Earl and father, Artemas, Moses and David Howe, and Ephraim Smith, -- all from Vt.1 The first religious association (M. E.) was formed in 1791.2

1 Among the other early settlers were Luther Seaver and Samuel Babcock, from Mass.; the latter in March, 1793. Wm. Chase was the first child born in town. Nathaniel Griggs kept the first inn, at Westford Village, in 1795; and David Smith, the first store, about the same time. Capt. Artemus Howe built the first gristmill, in 1794, and also erected the first sawmill.
2 The census reports 5 churches; 2 M. E., Cong., Prot. E., and Prot. Meth.

WORCESTER -- was formed from Cherry Valley, March 3, 1797. Decatur, Maryland, and Westford were taken off in 1808. It is the S. E. corner town in the co. The surface is a hilly and broken upland. The highlands which occupy the S. part of the town descend toward the N. by an abrupt declivity 350 to 400 ft. high. This declivity forms a continuous ridge extending N. E. and S. W. through near the center of the town. The principal streams are Charlotte River and its tributaries and Schenevas Creek. The soil is a sandy loam. Worcester, (p.v.,) in the N. W. part, contains 2 churches, 2 gristmills, a tannery, and 40 dwellings; East Worcester (p.v.) 2 churches, a gristmill, and sawmill, and 25 dwellings; and South Worcester, (p.v.,) on Charlotte River, a church, a bank, and 20 dwellings. The first settlements were made on Schenevas Creek, from 1788 to 90. The first church was formed at an early periiod;1 Rev. __ Bushnell was the first preacher.2

1 Among the early settlers were Silas Crippen and Henry Stever from Columbia co., Solomon Hartwell, Uriah Bigelow and Nathaniel Todd, from Mass., and Charles Wilder and Joseph Tainter, from Vt. Philip Crippen, son of Silas Crippen, was the first child born in town. The first school was taught by Joseph Tainter, in 1798. Isaac Puffer kept the first inn, in 1793; and Aaron Kinney, the first store, in 1798. Silas Crippen built the first gristmill in 1790, and the first sawmill, about the same time. The first clothing and carding works were erected by Rufus Draper.
2 The census reports 4 churches; 2 Bap., M. E., and Evan. Luth.


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